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Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography 



March 1974 



549 



WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE: 

An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Sources of Information 



Carolyn R. Johnson 
Assistant Director, MINITEX 
Wilson Library 
University of Minnesota 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

MAR 04 1974 



.UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT URBANA-CHAMPAK»J 



Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 



COUNCIL OF PLANNING LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURES AN ANNOTATED 
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GUIDE TO SOURCES OF INFORMATION 



by 



CaroljTi R. Johnson 
Assistant Director 
MINITEX 
Wilson Library 
University of Minnesota 
Minneapolis, MN 5$3$5 



INTRODUCTION 2 

I. BOOKS AND PERIODICAL ARTICLES ABOUT WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE 3 

A. Opportunities for Women in an Architecuture Career 3 

B. Achievements of Women Architects 8 

C. Studies and Surveys of Women in Architecture 15 

D. Women in Careers Related to Architecture 17 
II. ORGANIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS OF WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE 20 

III. STATISTICS SOURCES ON WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE 23 



2. CPL Exchange Bibliography -fSh9 

IHT.70DUCTI0I! 

Women have always represented a small percentage of the 
number of practicing architects in the United States, Great 
Britain and Canada. This representation has been based on 
the premise that architecture is a "man's profession". Male 
architects and the general public (including women) have 
traditionally assumed that a woman lacks the technical intel- 
ligence, the stamina, and the practicality in business matters 
necessary to become a competent architect. However, women who 
have succeeded in becoming architects, with or without formal 
education, have repeatedly proven to be as capable as their 
male counterparts. Nevertheless, in 1573j> the prospective 
woman architect faces the traditional barriers of ignorance 
of the architectural profession, lack of counselling to pro- 
spective women students, inadequacy of financial aid to women 
students, difficulties in finding employment, and more hard- 
ship in being compensated and promoted on a basis equal to that 
of msle architects performing the same jobs. 

This bibliography is intended to bring together the wri- 
tings on opportunities for women in an architecture career, 
achievements of women architects, results of studies and sur- 
veys of women architects, and selected writings on women in 
careers closely related to architecture. The section on organ- 
izations and associations of women in architecture is intended 
to put the interested reader, or researcher, in touch with the 
groups of women who are in part responsible for the performance 
of women architects today and tomorrow. It is through these 
groups of concerned women architects that the impetus for change 
in the profession, and the removal of the barriers mentioned 
above, is likely to come. A third section on sources of statis- 
tics on women in architecture is included for the benefit of 
researchers and interested readers, in order to give a more 
factual representation of the situation of the woman architect 
in the United States. The statistical sources are serial pub- 
lications, that is, they present the data over a continuous 
time span, enabling one to observe the quantitative change in 
the employment and education situation of women architects. 
The arrangement of material within each section of the biblio- 
graphy is explained at the beginning of the section. 

Thank you: women architects who volunteered information 
about your organisations! Harvard Graduate School of Design 
Library^ the National Federation of Business and Professional 
Women's Clubs Library, Ellen Perry Berkeley. 



3. CPL Exchange Bibliography #$\& 

I. BOOKS AND PERIODICAL ARTICLES AEOUT WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE 

A. Opportunities for Women in an Architecture Career. 
(Arrangement is in chronological order by date of 
article). 

Editorial. The American Architect and Building News , 1;1, 
September 30 , lb 1 76. 

The editors agree that perhaps it is true "a most 
useful and proper business for women is that of an 
architect", but they make two points. First, the 
"planning of houses" is not architecture. Second, 
the knowledge of convenience in the arrangement of 
a house is not born into women. By the time women 
have thoroughly learned housekeeping, it is too 
late for them to learn architecture. Therefore, 
women architects have no natural advantage over 
men, and all architects should "respond to the re- 
quisite knowledge instilled by lady clients" and 
wives of clients. 

"A Plea for Women Practising Architecture." American 

' Architect and Building Hews , 76:20-22, April 19, 1902. 

(A paper read by Miss Ethel M. Charles, A.R.I.B.A., 
before the Architectural Association (England) and 
printed in the Architect ) . 

"It is not a case of man or woman being best fitted 
to practise this art, but that it is entirely a case 
of personal capacity. . . . There are some people who 
maintain that woman, per se, is unsuited for practising 
our art. Wherein the weak point lies... as far as I 
can judge, it lies outside the woman, and is not a 
defect within her." Miss Charles maintains that an 
architect must be artistic, scientific, and practical 
in business matters. These qualities come as natural 
gifts, through education, or through experience, 
and know no sexual bias. 

Hatcher, 0. Latham. Occupations for Women; a Study 

Made for the Southern Women's Educational Alliance . 
Atlanta: Southern Women's Educational Alliance, 1927. 

"Architecture", pp. 9-H, describes educational re- 
quirements, nature of xrork, other attributes neces- 
sary for the career, including "vigorous health and 
intelligence". 



k. CPL Exchange Bibliography ;?5U9 

Frost, Henry Atherton. I : omen in Architecture and Land- 
scape Architecture , a study for the Institute for 
the co-ordination of women's interests. Northamp- 
ton, Massachusetts: Smith College, 1531? (cl$28). 

The introduction states: "the only fruitful studies 
of woman's occupations are those which clearly en- 
visage the important variable in their occupational 
lives — the e;:pectation of marriage and motherhood 
..." The study surveys the professions 1 s training 
requirements and opportunities. A survey of the 
requirements and training of six representative 
schools is included. In answer to the question 
about recommending architecture as a career for a 
woman, the author believes "the question of success 
in either architecture or landscape architecture 
does not necessarily involve sex." 

C-reenleaf, 1 "alter J. Guidance Leaflets . Architecture ._ 
U.S. Department of the Interior. Hay Lyman Wilbur, 
secretary. lalliam John Cooper, Commissioner. Vash- 
ington, D.C.; U.S. Government Printing Office, 
1932. (U.S. Office of Education Leaflet Ho. 10, 
rev. 9p.). 

Page 2; "Few women enter the field for various 
reasons, but women have done notable work in domes- 
tic architecture as well as in the building of pri- 
vate schools: interior decoration is also a side- 
line in which they are especially well qualified. 
According to the 1>20 census there irere 18, 185 
architects of whom 137 were women j possibly not 
more than two-thirds of these are recognized by 
the profession, othsrs being architectural drafts- 
men. The architectural profession needs capable, 
educated, and progressive young men and women en- 
doxred with artistic talent." 

Zapoleon, Ilarguerite \ykoff. "Education and Employment 
Opportunities for Women," in The Annals of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Sciences , 2£l: 
169-170, hay lfU7. 

A discussion of science careers for women includes 
engineering, architecture, and chemistry. Statis- 
tics on the numbers of women in each profession are 
included. 



5. CPL Exchange Bibliography #^U9 

Belluschi, Pietro. "Should You be an .Architect?" No. 7 
in a 5>7 booklet series issued by the New York Life 
Insurance Company, 19S&? . Reprinted in Scholastic 
Magazine , April 1970. 

The famous last paragraph; "You've noticed, I sup- 
pose, that I've directed my remarks to boys. I can- 
not, in whole conscience, recommend architecture as 
a profession for girls... the obstacles are so great 
that it takes an exceptional girl to make a go of it. 
If your daughter insists on becoming an architect, I 
iTOuld try to dissuade her. If she still insists, 
give her your blessing. She may be that exceptional 
one . " 

"Job Fact Sheet from Glamour — Architecture." Mew York, 
the Conde Mast Publications, Inc., 1961. 

Information on factors to consider in choosing archi- 
tecture as a career, choosing a school, architecture 
education, succession of job opportunities in the 
architectural profession, specialization, monetary 
rewards, suggested reading and reference material 
are presented to the reader. 

Allsopp, Bruce. Architecture . London: Robert Male, 
Ltd,, 1961*, "Women in Architecture," pp. 72-73- 

The author claims that there is no discrimination 
against women, that their pay and terms of appoint- 
ment are the same as for men. Women are not usually 
chosen as site architects, he concedes, and x^omen 
probably do not excel in domestic design or interior 
decoration. Masculine pronouns, chapter heading 
"the professional man — his changing role", suggest 
that discrimination is more prevalent than the author 
realizes. His discussion of women is confined to 
a separate chapter, as though it were a different 
field of architecture. 

Senior, Derek. Your Architect . London: Redder and 
Stoughton, 196I|.. 

There is no mention of women architects in this 
book. Chapter headings include "What he is", "How 
he works", etc. 



6. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Kohlberg, Edith Rose. "A Eattleground of the Spirit; 
the Pros and Cons of Architecture as a Career for 
Women," Mademoiselle , May 1966, p. 162-163+ . 

The article discusses how the quality of feminism 
can add to the field of architecture; describes 
training, and depicts the careers of several women 
architects. 

Fiper, Robert J. Opportunities in an Architecture Career . 
New York: Universal Publishing and Distributing 
Corporation, 1966. 

Page 36, re: opportunities for women in the design 
profession, "not nearly so many as for men... like 
any other work situation women in the design profes- 
sion are usually subject to lower salary schedules 

than are men even for comparable xvork. However 

even this historical situation is changing with time." 

Verity, Terence. Want to be an Architect? London: 
Leslie Frewin, 1966. 

The author addresses himself to girls as well as boys. 

Cheetham, J. H. Shall I be an Architect? Exeter; Wheat on 
Company, 1967. 

A book based on a true story about two boys and a 
girl who become architects . The three friends be- 
come partners and win a design competition. 

Winter, Elmer L. Women at Work; Every Woman's Guide 
to successful employment . New York: Simon and 
Schuster, 1967. 

The author advises (pp. 159-160) that architecture 
is the field for you if you have talent and accept 
the challenge of competing with men who predominate 
the field. 



7. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Stringer, P. "Comparison of the Self-images of Art and 

Architecture Students," Studies in Art Education, 9:33 
-k9, Autumn, 1967, bibliography. 

This study was conducted in 196U at four English 
colleges of art, with lh male students participating. 
The architecture student seems to share his liber- 
alism and creative aspirations with the art student, 
his lack of emotional reactivity with the science 
student, and differs from both these groups in his 
interest in people and activities on a social level. 
It is interesting to note that no women were included 
in the study, and that the self-images of either 
group are neither masculine nor feminine. 

Irvin, Floyd S. "Personality Characteristics and Voca- 
tional Identification," Journal of Counseling Psy- 
chology , 15:329-333, July 196b, bibliography. 

"Positive and negative sentence-completion responses 
were compared for 20 students aspiring to be artists 
and to students aspiring to be architects. Differ- 
ences predicted from occupational stereotypes and 
clinical observations were supported. Art students 
generally express negative reactions to self, par- 
ents, peers, achievement, and learning. Conversely, 
architecture students generally expressed positive 
attitudes in these same areas. For all of the areas 
evaluated, differences between vocational groups 
were found at or beyond the 0.5 level. The impli- 
cations of differences in personality characteristics 
of persons identified ^^■dth either art or architecture 
are discussed." All students in the experiment were 
male. It would be interesting to apply the same 
test to females or a mixed group. 

Lunneborg, C. E. and P. W. Lunneborg. "Architecture 

School Performance Predicted from ASAT, Intellective, 
and Non-Intellective Measures," Journal of Applied 
Psychology , $3:209-213, June 1969. 

This study provides additional evidence of the use- 
fulness of the ASAT (Architectural School Aptitude 
Test, Educational Testing Service, 1965), as a tool 
for guiding or advising prospective architecture 
students. Bibliographic references are given. (Re- 
prints: Clifford E. Lunneborg, Director, Bureau of 
Testing, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash- 
ington 98105.) 



8. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Epstein, Cynthia. Woman's Place; Options and Limits 
in Professional Careers . Berkeley: University cf 
California Press, 1970. 

Page 153: "Architecture is among the prrfessions 
(including law, medicine, the ministry) sex- typed 
as male in American Society." 

Schwartz, Felice N. How to Go to Work When Your Husband 
is Against It ? _ Your Children Aren~ Old Enough, and " 
There's Nothing You Can Do Anyhow . By Felice N. 
Schwartz, Margaret H. Schifter and Susan S. Gillotti, 
vri-th assistance from Marilyn Mercer. Hew York: 
Simon and Schuster, 1972. 

Advice for prospective architects, pp. 167-170, in- 
cludes information on job opportunities, background 
information on careers and training, manpower needs. 

Turpin, Dick. "More Women Architects to be Sought," 

Los Angeles Times , May 11, 1973, Part II, Page 2, col. 

"The predominantly male American Institute of Archi- 
tects committed itself to "Take action to integrate 
women into all aspects of the profession as full 
participants." The resolution ordered the Institute 
to conduct a study on the status of women in the pro- 
fession. One purpose of the study would be to en- 
courage more women to become architects . Of the 
AlA's 2^,000 members, only U% are women and the same 
ratio applies, a spokesman estimated, among the 
6,000 or more architects in the nation who are not 
AIA members ." 



B. Achievements of Women Architects. (Arrangement is 
in Chronological Order by Date of Achievement.) 

Joyce, T. At hoi. Women of All Nations; a Record of Their 
Characteristics, Habits, Manners, Customs and In- 
fluence . London: Cassell and Company, Ltd., 1908, 
Volume III, North America. 

Page Ul5: (The North-West Coast.) "The permanent 
houses of this insular and inlet area, which are 
among the largest of wooden buildings erected by 
savages, are the work of the men and consume several 
years in the construction. The women help at every 
turn, and, what is important in this narrative, the 
permanent as well as the temporary shelters are 
erected in connection with them and their demands." 



9. CPL Exchange Bibliography 7 f!?H9 

Page kh$° (Pueblo Indians.) "The Pueblo woman builds 
her house of stone or adobe. Her agile hands are 
the whole kit of mason's tools for fitting the mater- 
ials and smootiinging the walls. Who but the potter 
-would have the feeling for this? Hen do the heavy 
work, and the women are like the wasps clustering 
their rooms together like the cells of a honeycomb. 
Two motives first impelled them to do this— the en- 
vironment and their neighbours, the hostile tribes . 
Since the whites came, more eligible sites have been 
chosen, and the lower storeys have doorways on the 
ground floor. The clay and stone also were uncon- 
scious organisers, which in all ages ensured the 
largest cooperation. 

When the house was finished it was in truth the wo- 
man' s, for here, more than in other areas mentioned, 
were concentrated the home arts, and here were gathered 
the means of cultivating these arts. 

Matthews, C. T. "Influence of Women in Architecture," 

American Architect and Building News , 3>9:3-U.» January 
1, 1«9«. 

An historical account of the influence of women 
beginning with the construction of the Hanging 
Gardens of Babylon, tells how the Byzantine style 
of architecture was introduced in Russia by a woman, 
and describes the influence of the women of the Re- 
naissance and the favorites of the French kings . 

"The First Woman Architect?" Country Life, 113:1077, 
April 9, 1953. 

Mrs. Alexander Deane, fl. 1787-1812, took an active 
part in the superintendence of the Naval Dockyard 
and works under construction on Haulbowline Island, 
: ... Cork, between the years 1806 and 1812 at a cost of 
I| 200,000. There is in existence a letter from the 
Lords of Admiralty in itfhich they express their ap- 
preciation of her activities remarking that it xvas 
largely due to her drive and constant care and at- 
tention to detail that sufficient ships were kept 
at sea, enabling the Fleet to maintain the blockade 
at Brest and ensure Admiral Calder to put to sea and 
disperse the French to the West Indies before the 
Battle of Trafalgar. 



10. CPL Exchange Bibliography 7 ?5U9 

Langham-Carter, R. R. "South Africa's First Woman Ar- 
chitect," Architec t and B uilder , 17:lU-l6, March 
1967, illustrated. 

Sophia Gray, wife of the first Anglican bishop of - 
Cape Town, was active over a period of about twenty- - 
txro years, from 18U3 to 18 70. She was her own- drafts- 
man but did not confine herself to the drawing- 
board, being often also her own builder and contrac- 
tor and sometimes almost her own bricklayer. For 
a woman who never had training of any sort, who 
apparently never asked or received any assistance 
from the male architects of South Africa, hers is a 
truly astonoshing achievement. Though some of her 
churches have since proved too small and been de- 
molished in favor of larger successors, none have 
had to succumb on account of poor workmanship and 
a great many of them still are standing and in ex- 
cellent condition. 

"Female Architects." The Builder , 19: 2$k, April 13, 1861. 

Was Jane Wren, daughter of Sir Christopher Wren, 
an architect? References for and against. 

Stern, Madeleine B. "America's First Woman Architect?" 
Society of Architectural Historians Journal, 18:66, 
May 1959. " ' ' 

Two names are proposed with brief sketches of the 
accomplishments of Harriet M. Irwin and Louise Blan- 
chard Bethune. 

Stern, Madeleine B. We the Women:; Career Firsts of 
Hineteenth-Century America , ilew York: Schulte 
Publishing Company, 1963. Chapter 3, "Three American 
Women Firsts in Architecture," pp. 5>5>-76. 

Harriet Irwin, first woman actually to patent an 
architectural innovation for a dwelling I869," Louise 
Bethune, America's first professional woman archi- 
tect, I88I5 Sophia G. Hayden, designer of the Woman's 
Building of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 
1891. 

"Design for a Workman's Cottage." American Architect and 

Building News , 3:129, April 13, 1878, illustrated, plans. 

Margaret Hicks, designer. Caption of illustration: 
"This design was prepared by the only female student 
in the architectural class at Cornell University." 



11. CPL Exchange Bibliography #£H9 

Bethune, Louise. "Women and Architecture," Inland Ar- 
chitect and Mews Record , 17 '.20-21, March 1691. 

Portions of a talk before the Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union, Buffalo, H.Y., March 6, 1891. 
Reviews educational opportunities for women archi- 
tecture students at that time, claims women archi- 
tects meet no serious opposition from the profession 
nor the public, calls for "Equal Remuneration for 
Equal Service," citing an instance where a woman 
architect received one tenth the salary received 
by a male architect for the same type of work. 

"Les Femmes Architect es." La Construction Moderne , 11: 
2ii$-256, 1896. 

Comment on the January 25> article. in Builder re- 
garding twelve women architects in London wh» are 
practicing although not members of the Royal In- 
stitute. The writer considers the aspects of re- 
storation and interior decoration proper work for 
women architects. 

"The Admission of a Woman to Associateship in the R.I.E.A." 
American Architect and Building Mews , 63:20-21, 
January 21, 1899. 

Abstracts of the discussion on the admission of Miss 
Charles, the first woman candidate to pass pre- 
liminary and intermediate exams, thereby qualifying 
her for membership. 

Argument against her admission: "the universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge ladies trere allowed to sit 
for the examinations, they were not given a degree. 
The College of Physicians and Surgeons permitted 
ladies to sit for the examinations, but they conferred 
no degree.... if they admitted this lady as an Asso- 
ciate they conferred a degreej they were going 
against the general principle of all institutions 
and associations of this kind." 

Argument in favor of her admission: "The Institute 
was established for the advancement of architecture 
. . . .The Institute therefore, should not stultify it- 
self by refusing to elect this lady, who had passed 
all the qualifying tests. The Census of 1891 showed 
that there were twelve ladies practising architec- 
ture in London alone, besides others in large toxms, 
and since that time, no doubt, the number had been 
considerably increased. It xtfould be well to honor the 
first lady candidate by electing her first — by placing 
her name before all others." 



12. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

"The vote was taken on each candidate separately 
and all, with the exception of i'iiss Charles, were 
elected by a unanimous vote . In the case of 
Miss Charles the vote stood 51 for and 16 against 
her admission, the majority being large enough to 
cover her case. It is rather interesting to remark 
that the R.I.B.A. has a membership of about 1,600, 
and yet at a meeting where was to be decided a matter 
which might well stagger the conservative Briton 
only 98 members were brought together." 

Drtt, Annabel. "The Woman Architect and Her Work," The 
Architectural Review , Ulj.: 31-32, 1918. 

This article was written after the war as an appeal 
to women to "fill the ranks" of the architectural 
profession. Emphasis is on domestic design, "he 
who wears the shoe knows where it pinches." 

Phillips, Randal. "Women Architects, a House at Rother- 
fuld Greys, Near Henlay-on-Thames, Designed by Miss 
F. J. Gibb and Miss M. Low," Country Life , 85:56U- 
565, May 27, 1939. 

Illustrations, plans and a descriptive text. 

"A Thousand Women in Architecture." Architectural 

Record , 103:105-113, March 19 U8; 108-115, June 191*8, 
illustrations, plans, ports. 

A survey of the women in the U.S. who have been 
trained in architecture, and a presentation of the 
architectural work of some of the most outstanding 
among them. Some statistics, but generally narra- 
tive commentary. Contents: Els a Gidon, Ruth Rey- 
nolds Freeman, Lavone Dickensheets Scott, Edla 
Muir, Marie Frommer, Eleanor Raymond, Lucille Bryant 
Raport, Elizabeth Scheu Close, Barbara W. Siemens, 
Larch Renshaw, Victorine Homsey, Gertrude Sawyer, 
Rose Connor, Tennie Owen Wiatt, Carina Eaglesfield 
Milligan, Elizabeth Coit, Irene McFaul, Emily H. 
Butterfield. 

"Women Architects Say Home Designing Is Last Job Choice." 
The Washington Daily Hews , May 16, 1957- 

Designing houses brings less money, involves more 
problems and takes more time than any other phase 
of architecture. Comments by six prominent female 
architects. 



13. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Joynes, Jennifer R. "Women in the Architectural Profes- 
sion," Habitat , 2:1*, p. 2-6, July- August 1959. 

Text is accompanied by photos, photo of a model, 
port., map. 

Congres International de Femmes Architects. 1st., 

Paris, 1963. Rapports et Motions . Paris, 1?63?, 31 1. 

"Organise par 1' Union francaise des femmes archi- 
tectes a Paris du 26 juin au 3 juillet 1963." 

van Peborgh, Sonia. "Le Premier Congres International 
des Femmes Architestes. The First International 
Congress of Women Architects," UIA: Revue de 1' 
Union Internationale des Architectes , no. 23?llt-l5j 
October 1963. 

Text in French and English. 

"Women Architects' . UIA: Revue del 'Union Internationale 
des Architectes , no. 35:20-29, September 1965 • 

Text in French and English. 

Poole, Daniel. "What Creates a Beautiful City?" The 
Evening Star , Washington, D.C., March 12, 1965. 

An interview with Chloethiel Woodard Smith, who 
heads the largest distaff-run architectural firm 
in the U.S. She talks about the importance of funding 
and research to back up good design. 

Brown, Denise Scott. "Planning the Powder Room," Amer- 
ican Institute of Architects Journal , li7:8l-83, April 
1967. : *~ 

Criticism of the design of public restrooms and 
powder rooms from a woman architect's point of view. 

McLendon, Winzola. "Architect Designs Ho Ivory Towers," 
The Washington Post , Section E, page 1+, July 30, 1967. 

The career of Washington Architect Chloethiel Woodard 
Smith, a nationally renovmed architect and head of 
the largest architectural firm in the U.S. run by a 
woman ($80,000,000 of construction and services in 
the last five years) is described, accompanied by 
criticism of her work by other architects. 



111. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Reif, Rita. "Fighting the System in the Male Dominated 
Field of Architecture," Hew York Times , April 11, 
1971, p. 60, col. 1. 

Six women architects, eirployed by II. Ereuer and 
Associates, are trying to receive public recognition 
in male-dominated professionj Breuer comments. 

"Four Fine Fellows." Amer ican Institute of Architects 
Journal , $2:86-87,~September 1969, illustrated. 

Two husband and wife teams of architects who have 
become fellows of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects. 

"Outstanding Uoman Architect, Leader in Professional 
and Civic Groups." American Institute of Architects 
Journal , 56; 62, November 1971. 

Jean Roth Driskel, graduate of the University of 
Washington, and resident of South Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia, the third California woman to be elected 
to the AlA's College of Fellows. 

"NYC Officials Meet with Architecture Deans of Yale, 
Princeton, Columbia, NYU, and City University to 
Assure Deans There Will Be City Jobs for Qualified 
Women Gradsj Deans Agree to Explore Recruitment of 
Students from Women's Colleges, Where They Had Not 
Previously Recruited Members of Students, " New York 
Times, February 1U, 1972, p. 26, col. 5. 

Meeting was called by Eleanor Holmes Norton, New 
York City Commissioner of Human Rights. Article 
includes statement by one of the deans, "Wcmen 
approach architecture differently from men- -they're 
either too finicky or too controlled." 

Braden, D. R. "Jane Russell, Girl Architect," American 
Institute of Architects Journal , $8:6U, October 1972. 

Letter regarding Miss Russell (film star of the 'UO's), 
who "designed" Taos West, an 80-unit apartment house in 
Van Huys, California. 



15. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

"Heeded Words: Ada Louise Huxtable has Formidable Power 
as Architecture Criticj Her New York Times Pieces 
Have Sway TJith Builders, Don't Always Uin Friends." 
Wall Street Journal , November 7, 1972 , p. 1, col. 1. 

"She's a very charming, feminine, quiet Xiroman who's 
like a razor blade." Reviews the career of Pulitzer 
Prize winning architecture critic. 

Reif, Rita. "Women Architects, Slow to Unite, Find 

They're Catching up with Male Peers," New York Times , 
February 26, 1973. 

Describes the achievements of women in architecture 
during the last two years, including integration, 
education, organizations, surveys. Statistics and 
addresses of organizations are given. 



C. Studies and surveys of women in architecture. (Ar- 
rangement is in chronological order by date of article.) 

"Women in Architecture." (editorial), Architectural and 
Engineering News , 1:13, April 1959. 

Editorial on women in architecture includes note on 
founding in 1922 of the Association of Women in Ar- 
chitecture. Statistics on women in architecture are 
given. 

Joynes, Jennifer R. "Women in the Architectural Pro- 
fession," Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 
Journal , 36: 320-321, September 1959. 

Statistics on women architects in Canada are presented 
along with a review of the traditional obstacles 
and arguments against women entering the profession. 
Views of prominent female architects are expressed 
and successful women in the field of architecture 
are named. 

DeSaulles, M. "Return of Married Women to Professional 
Life," Royal Institute of British Architects Journal , 
Ser. 3, 71:136, April 196!;. 

Architectural Association (England) discovers a po- 
tential reserve of qualified architects provided 
ways are found of enabling married women to combine 
home commitments with professional life. Sugges- 
tions are offered. 



16. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Linerman, Beatrice. "Women in Architecture," Architec- 
tural Forum. 131:50-I>1, December 1969. 

A survey of the state of women architects: less 
than 1% of the total number of registered architects 
in the U.S. are women j under 100 out of 20,000 ar- 
chitects are womenj 1 architect in 200 is a woman; 
less than %% of architecture students are women. 

"American Women." Time , iiarch 20, 1972, p. 77. 

In a special issue on the American Woman, a "situa- 
tion report" indicates that women architects have 
faired worse than painters, citing 6% of architecture 
students as women, 1% of AIA members. "It is hard 
to believe that women are as untalented as the sta- 
tistics imply." 

Berkeley, Ellen Perry. "Women in Architecture," Archi- 
tectural Forum , 137:U6-53, September 1972. 

A lengthly, informative article, detailed with names, 
addresses, statistics, which describe the situation 
of \TOmen architects and architecture students today. 
Includes anecdotes on discrimination, comparison. with 
women planners, activities of the AIA and some of the 
new women's architectural organizaions. 

WALAP. "The Case for Flexible Work Schedules," Archi- 
tectural Forum , 137;5>'3+, September 1972. 

An article which grew out of a series of discussions 
of a newly formed women's group (Women Architects^ 
Landscape Architects, and Planners) presents agru- 
ments in favor of a flexible work schedule which 
would enable women and men to work part-time, and 
might even benefit the firm. Other alternatives to 
the standard work schedule are presented. 

"Woman's Work." Newsweek, February 12, 1973. 

Examining almost 200 job categories for the years 19f?0 
. through 1970, a special chapter on women in the 
Economic Report of the President (1973) shows that, 
with rare exceptions. . .most of the typically mascu- 
line professions and trades still employ relatively 
feitf women j and women continue to dominate other oc- 
cupations. A chart shows that in 1950, 3.8£ of 
architects in the U.S. were women; in 1970, 3.6% ire re 
women. 



17. CPL Exchange Bibliography #51$ 

ileus Reports. Architectural Record , April 1973* "Women 
Architects Seek Wider Role in Profession, End to 
Discrimination. " 

Statistics on numbers of women architects and their 
salariesj advances made by the Alliance of Women 
in Architecture, and individual woman architects °, 
gains in education! proposed resolution for the 
AIA convention, 1973. 

News Item. American Institute of Architects Journal , 
59:6, June 1973. 

"Roll call vote on status of women in architecture 
profession passed 997 for and 627 against calls for 
the AIA to conduct a study, the results of which 
x-ri.ll be reported to the December Board meeting and the 
197U convention. Specifically, it asks for the form- 
ulation of policies in the following areas: l) the 
encouragement of women to become architects j 2) the 
involvement of more women in the AIA activities and 
structure^ 3) the initiation of an affirmative action 
program to implement the "Equal Opportunity Section" 
of AIA's Guidelines for a Personnel Practices lianual . 
A fourth point — the elimination of sexist wording 
in all AIA documents and publications — earlier had 
been deleted from the motion by a voice vote." 



D. Selected articles on women in careers related to 

architecture. (Arrangement is by field of endeavor.) 

Art and Design 

Drewes, Caroline. "Barbara is Graphic about Her Success," 
San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, March 1, 
1970. 

An interview with Barbara Stauffacher Solomon, graphics 
designer and winner of the AIA Industrial Arts Medal 
commending the impact of graphics in ,! bringing order 
to the urban scene." Barbara comments on her work, 
her career, and San Francisco architecture. 

Dreyfus, Patricia Ann. "Women's Lib and Women Designers'," 
Print, 2U:2?-35, May 1970. 

"Though job opportunities for women in the design 
field are ample, their salaries are lower than men's, 
they don't get promoted as often, and the psychological 
barriers they face would tax Carrie Hation." 



18. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Hess, 

Hess, Thomas B. Art and Sexual Politics; Women's Liber- 
ation, Women Artists, and Art History . Edited by- 
Thomas B. Kess and Elizabeth C. Baker. Hew York: 
Collier Books, 1973. 

The essays appearing in this book originally appeared 
in Art Hews , Volume 69, Humber 9, and are reprinted 
here in revised form. Ten women artists reply to the 
question, "Why have there been no great women artists?" 
Text is accompanied by notes on the artists and pho- 
tographs of their work. 

Warmer, Nancy. "Womanspace, a Creative Battle for Equality 
in the Art World," Art Hews , 72:38-39, Summer 1973. 

A non-profit, membership governed feminist gallery 
and artists' center in Los Angeles is described. 
Background information on women's art in Southern 
California is also included in the article. 

Hochlin, Linda. "Why Have There Been No Great Women 
Artists?" Art Hews , 69:22-U9+, January 1971. 

"Implications of the Women's Lib Movement for art 
history and for the conteirporary art scene." The 
author's response to the question: that greatness 
of women artists has been institutionally rather 
than individually impossible. Eight replies to the 
question are given by noted women artists, dis- 
cussing discrimination against women artists, the 
current status of women in art, protesting male- 
female differentiation in art, and women artists in 
the academic community. 



Construction 

"So You Think You'll Turn the Business Over to the Boy 
When You Get Too Old." House and Home , 39:26, 
February 1971. 

Women who took over the business and now make a 
living by professionally building houses tell their 
story. They say that no discrimination has been 
encountered. 



19. CPL Exchange Bibliography i L $k9 

"Woman Has Built 8,000 Hones." The Milwaukee Journal , 
October 19, 1967. 

An interview with Ruth Richmond, woman builder and 
contractor, and interior designer, who has built 
8,000 homes in Florida. The article reveals Mrs. 
Richmond's views on design and mentions some of her 
accomplishments . 

"Women in the Plant." Automation in Housing , September 
1972, p. 38-la. 

Women are working in all phases of industralized 
housing manufacturing— plant laborers, sales, 
management . 



Planning 

American Society of Planning Officials. Planning Ad- 
visory Service. Women and Blacks in Planning; 1972 . 
Prepared by Lisa B. Yondrof. Chicago; American 
Society of Planning Officials, 1972, 7p. Its PAS Memo M-10. 

Statistics from ASPO's annual Planning Advisory 
Service report, "Expenditures, Staff, and Salaries 
of Planning Agencies," reflecting positions filled 
as of January 1, 1972, show that "women continue to 
be underrepresented in the planning profession and 
that when they are represented they are located in 
the loi7er levels of the organizational heirarchy." 

Kaunitz, Rita D. "Planner Suggests Strategy to Give 
Broader Urban Role to Women," Ameri c an In sti tut e_ of 
Planners Newsletter, 2%9 } November 1967. 



Lan dscape Architecture 

"Gardening in New England Section," Horticulture , 18: 
1-2, December 1$, 19h0. 

The subject of women as landscape architects is dis- 
cussed by a student (Louise Weir) and an instructor 
(Elizabeth Pattee). Article is a digest of radio 
broadcast, November 30, 19U0, Station WSEI, sponsored 
by Massachusetts Horticultural Society. 



20. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Hudnut, Joseph. "The Architectress," American Institute 
of Architects Journ al, 13:111-116, March 1951 I part 
2, 15:lbl-iuu, 107-ib6, April 1951. 

The author notes some "female" patterns of conduct - 
which prevent women from achieving success as archi- 
tects. Exceptions to the rule are given. 

Petersen, Anne. "Women Take Lead in Landscape Artj Field 

is Dominated by a Group of Brilliant Designers of 

Horticultural Vistas...," Mew York Times , page 1, 
March 13, 1938. 



II. ORGANIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS OF WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE 

Alliance of Women in Architecture (New York City-New England area) 
HFlast 65th Street 
New York, NY 10021 

Founded in Hay 1972, by women in the architectural pro- 
fession from the New York area, includes interior 
designers, planners, landscape architects, engineers. 
Issues a monthly newsletter which contains information 
on local programs and activities, and information on 
organizations of similar concerns. Discrimination work- 
shops produced a salary survey tdth statistics on its 
members and a control group of men. Education Workshop 
provides speakers, student counseling, campus visits. 
Licensing Workshop offers assistance to those taking 
licensing exams. A group of women from the Alliance of 
Women in Architecture are preparing an archive of the 
work of women in architecture in the U.S., past and present. 

Association of Women in Architecture (Los Angeles area) 

c/o Betsie Kniseley Marriott 
2369 Kenilworth Avenue 
Los Angeles, CA 90039 

Founded in 19U8, is affiliated with the Women's Archi- 
tectural Association. Membership is about 60, plus 
student groups being formed at UCLA and USC. The AWA 
maintains a list of women architects in Southern Cali- 
fornia, has an annual exhibit of members' work, promotes 
good architecture and preservation of the environment, 
promotes appreciation of the value of women in architec- 
ture and related arts, maintains a student advisory 
program, and provides an annual scholarship to women 
students . 



21. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Feminist Studio Workshop (Southern California area) 

Women's Building 

7k3 Grandview 

Los Angeles, CA 900l;6 

Judy Chicago, Arlene Raven, Sheila de Bretteville, founders 
expect to open the doors to some UO students in September 
1973- "The FSW is an experimental program in female edu- 
cation in the arts. Its purpose is to develop a new con- 
cept of art, a new kind of artist and a new art com- 
munity built from the lives, feelings and needs of women. 
The FSW is committed to the development of an integrated 
female support community in which art making, art his- 
torical and critical analyses, public, design arts and 
feminist consciousness merge into a new frame of refer- 
ence. In the FSW women will be free to explore alterna- 
tive ways of introducing their female perspective into 
society." For more information about the programs of- 
fers, write to the above address. 

National Association of Women in Construction (National) 
2800 W. Lancaster Avenue 
Fort Worth, TX 76107 

Founded in 1953, UAWIC now has about 5500 members in 
165 chapters across the U.S. who are actively engaged 
in the construction industry, itforking for contractors, 
subcontractors, building material and equipment firms, 
and construction news companies. NAWIC educates mem- 
bers in new construction techniques, awards national 
and local scholarships to students of engineering or 
architecture. Local chapters sponsor workshops, study 
courses, and educational programs, maintain employment 
services, and issue monthly bulletins containing articles 
on construction education. Publications: NAWIC Image, 
monthlyj Construction Dictionary (published by the Phoenix, 
Arizona chapter, 1966). Annual convention in the fall, 
regional Forums in the Spring. 

Organization of Women Architects (San Francisco Bay area) 
61*62 Hillegass 
Oakland, CA 9U618 

Founded in 1972, this organization has grown to approxi- 
mately 135 members, including women from related profes- 
sions as well as architects. The group is concerned with 
continuing education and professional upgrading. It 
maintains an employment information center, has prepared 
a profile of the women in architecture in the Bay area, 
and issues a newsletter. The Organization of Women Ar- 
chitects plans to coordinate with groups throughout the 
country sharing a common interest. The group organized 
an exhibit booth at the 1973 AIA convention in San Francisco, 



22. CPL Exchange Bibliography #5U9 

Society of Uomen Engineers (SWE) (National) 
United Engineering Center 
3U5 E. U7th Street 
New York, NY 10017 

Founded in 1952, the SUE has an international membership 
of over 1200 with chapters located in 18 geographical 
areas in addition to 33 student sections located at 
schools around the country. A professional society of 
iromen engineers, the SWE supplies information on various 
fields of engineering, college, programs scholarships 
available! grants and scholarships in engineering. Its 
Newsletter is published five times a year, its direc- 
tory is biennial. Annual convention. "Associate mem- 
bers" are employed in other fields related to engineering. 
The SUE is the professional organization of graduate 
women engineers and women with equivalent engineering 
experience in the U.S.j it is a non-profit, educational 
service organization dedicated to making knew the need 
for women engineers and encouraging young women to con- 
sider an engineering education. 

1 'Union Internationale des Feirmes Architectes (International) 
III, rue Dumont d'Urville 
Paris XVI Frame 

First congress was held in 1963, and is reported on in 
UIA: revue de l'Union Internationale des Architectes, 
no. 23, October 1963, p. U;-1J>. (Text in French and 
English.) 

Wo men Architects, Landscape Architects, and Planners (WALAP) 
c7o Boston Architectural Center 
320 Newbury Street 
Boston, MA 0221$ 

Dolores Hayden founded this group in 1971-1972. Today 
they maintain a job bank of the Boston area and hold a 
major meeting every other month. Members of the group 
authored an article in Architectural Forum , September 
1972, on flexible hours for architects, and some of 
WALAP 's members opened an all women's office, the "Open 
Design Office," at 113U Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 



23. CPL Exchange Bibliography #$\\9 

Women's Design_Program (Southern California) 
School of Design 

California Institute of the Arts 
Valencia, CA $13$$ 

Organized in June, 1971, by Sheila de Bretteville, the 
original group had 1$ students. "The Women's Design 
Program is a move to discover the design, implications of 
the reawakening of feminism; to find new ways of pre- 
senting a perspective that is uniquely female." The 
group is now organizing a slide registry of work of 
women designers of the twentieth century. 



III. STATISTICS SOURCES ON WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURE 



U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Office 

of Education. Associate Degrees and Other Formal Awards 
Below the Baccaluareate, 1969-1970 , annual, 1971, vii+ 
20U p., Occupational Curriculum Awards , pp. 76-1 01^. 

Awards based on organized occupational curriculums at 
the technical or semi-professional level in institutions 
of higher education, by length of curriculum, sex of 
student, type of curriculum, State or area and institu- 
tion; includes architectural or building technologies. 

. Earned Degrees Conferred, 1969-1970 , Summary Data , 

annual, 1972, v+37 p. (began 191|7-19UbJ . 



Lists conferred degree totals for U.S. by State and by 
area and field of study. 

. Earned Degrees Conferred, 1969-1970, Institutional 



Data , annual, 1970, xi+699 p. 

Lists conferring institution by name, arranged by State 
or outlying area and by area and field of study. Gives 
degrees conferred, indicates sex of student. 

. Fall Enrollment _in Higher Education, 1970, Sup- 
plementary Information , ____________ Data , annual, 1971, 

ix+2Ul p. 

Data include enrollment totals for public and private 
two and four year colleges and universities, by name, 
as well as degree level, residence status, sex of student. 



2U. CPL Exchange Bibliography #$U9 

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Office 
of Education. Students Enrolled for Advanced Degrees , 
Fall 1970 , Summary Data , annual, 1971, vi+U3 p. 

Report covers more than 200 fields of study; introduc- 
tion and summary data on current trends | summary data, 
degrees by area of study, enrollment comparison, 1969-1970. 

. Students Enrolled for Advanced Degrees, Fall 



1970 , Institutional Data , annual, 1971, xi+293 p. 

Table 5>, "Enrollment by Institution," gives advanced 
degrees by level of enrollment, area or field of study, 
and institution. 

U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Oc- 
cupational Employment Statistics, 1960-1970 , 1972, v±+hk p. 

Narrative and statistical sections. 

. Occupational Outlook Handbook; 1972-1973 edi- 



tion , Bulletin no. 1700 (biennial). 

Estimates on the number of women and on the proportion 
of women to total employed, in selected occupations. 

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Job Patterns 
for Minorities and Women in Private Industry , (annual) 

Number employed, by industry and industry group, major 
occupation group, sex, and minority race or group (covers 
about one-third of employed women). Area covered: U.S. 
State, SMSA. 

Alliance of Women in Architecture. 

Group has statistics from its salary survey of the New 
York area. 

American Institute of Architects. 

Tally made in 1969 revealed 233 women members, estimate 
in 1972, 250 to 300 members. 

Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture. 

Provides numbers of female and male architecture stu- 
dents. (1968-1969, 5.1& architecture students were 
female j 1971-1972, S.9% were female). 



2$. CPL Exchsnge Bibliography §$h9 



COUNCIL OF PLANNING LIBRARIANS Exchange Bibliography §$h$ 

WOMEN IN ARCHITECTURES AN ANNOTATED 
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND GUIDE TO SOURCES OF INFORMATION 



Additional copies available from: 

Council of Planning Librarians 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 



for $2.50